Research Papers

International Journals:

J1. Juncal Alonso, Leire Orue-Echevarria, Maider Huarte. ACSmI: A solution to address the challenges of Cloud services federation and monitoring towards the Cloud Continuum.  Special issue on “Smart Cloud Applications, Services and Technologies”, International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering.  Inderscience. 2021. [H-21, Q3], relates to WP5.

Available online:

This paper presents a solution for Cloud Brokerage and monitoring. ACSmI serves as baseline for the implementation of the IEC (Infrastructural Elements Catalogue) and the performance monitoring Key results in PIACERE.

J2. Alonso, J., Orue-Echevarria, L., Osaba, E., López Lobo, J., Martinez, I., Diaz de Arcaya, J., & Etxaniz, I. (2021). Optimization and Prediction Techniques for Self-Healing and Self-Learning Applications in a Trustworthy Cloud Continuum. Information, 12(8), 308. [Q2], Relates to WP5 & WP6.

Open access:

In this work, authors describe some of the most important aspects that compose the PIACERE project, in which it is proposed the use of AI-based techniques to assist DevOps teams in the whole lifecycle of infrastructure management.

J3. Bin Xiang, Jocelyne Elias, Fabio Martignon, Elisabetta Di Nitto. Resource calendaring for mobile edge computing: Centralized and decentralized optimization approaches. Computer Networks (ELSEVIER), 2021. [H-135, Q1], Relates to WP5.

Zenodo link:

Resource calendaring permits to exploit the intrinsic flexibility in the services demanded by different users, whose starting time can be shifted without penalizing the utility perceived by the user while, at the same time, permitting a better resource utilization in the network. Both the centralized and decentralized optimization approaches for resource calendaring studied in this paper can be used in PIACERE IOP in the edge computing scenarios.

J4. Bin Xiang, Jocelyne Elias, Fabio Martignon, Elisabetta Di Nitto. Joint planning of network slicing and mobile edge computing: Models and algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, 2021. [H-49, Q1], Relates to WP5.

Zenodo link:

Jointly planning the availability of computational resources at the edge, the slicing of mobile network and edge computation resources allows the network operator to fine tune the network operation cost and the total latency experienced by users. The optimization approach for resource planning studied in this paper can be used in PIACERE IOP in the edge computing scenarios.

J5. Bin Xiang, Jocelyne Elias, Fabio Martignon, Elisabetta Di Nitto. A dataset for mobile edge computing network topologies, Data in Brief, Volume 39, 2021, 107557, ISSN 2352-3409, [H-37, Q4], Relates to WP5.

Zenodo link:

In the present paper we provide data related to 3 randomly generated topologies, with increasing network size (from 25 to 100 nodes). Moreover, we propose a MEC topology generated from OpenCellID real data and concerning the Base Stations’ location of 234 LTE cells owned by a mobile operator (Vodafone) in the center of Milan. We also provide realistic reference parameters (link bandwidth computation and storage capacity, offered traffic), derived from real services provided by MEC in the deployment of 5G networks.

J6. Juncal Alonso, Leire Orue-Echevarria, Maider Huarte. CloudOps: Towards the Operationalization of the Cloud Continuum. MDPI Applied Sciences. Basel 2022, 12(9), [Q2], relates to WP2. ​

Zenodo link:

Available online:​

This paper presents a solution for Cloud Brokerage and monitoring. ACSmI serves as baseline for the implementation of the IEC (Infrastructural Elements Catalogue) and the performance monitoring Key results in PIACERE.

J7. Juncal Alonso, Leire Orue-Echevarria, Ana Isabel Torre, Maider Huarte, Ana Juan, Valentina Casola. Understanding the challenges and opportunities of Multi-Cloud native applications – A systematic literature review. Journal of Cloud Computing. Relates to WP2.

The goal of this study is manifold. Firstly, it aims to characterize the multi-cloud concept from the application development perspective by reviewing existing defnitions of multi-cloud native applications in the literature. Secondly, we set up the basis for the architectural characterization of these kind of applications. Finally, we highlight several open research issues drawn up from the analysis carried out.

Available online: Understanding the challenges and novel architectural models of multi-cloud native applications – a systematic literature review.pdf

J8. Juncal Alonso, Radoslaw Piliszek, Matija Cankar. Embracing IaC through the DevSecOps philosophy: Concepts, challenges, and a reference framework. IEEE Software, Special issue: Special Issue on Infrastructure-as-Code Unleashed. Relates to WP2.

We introduce the challenges of DevSecOps philosophy and its applicability to the development and operation of trustworthy infrastructure-ascode, and we combine the solutions into a single framework covering all crucial steps. Finally, we discuss how the proposed framework addresses the challenges and introduce an initial design for it.

Available online: Embracing IaC Through the DevSecOps Philosophy: Concepts, Challenges, and a Reference Framework | IEEE Journals & Magazine | IEEE Xplore

J9. Michele Chiari, Dino Mandrioli, Francesco Pontiggia, Matteo Pradella. A Model Checker for Operator Precedence Languages. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, Accepted June 2023. DOI:, Relates to WP4, KR5. 

This paper presents a model checker, named POMC, for Operator Precedence Language (OPL) programs to prove properties expressed in Precedence Oriented Temporal Logic (POTL). To the best of the authors’ knowledge, POMC is the first implemented and openly available model checker for proving tree-structured properties of recursive procedural programs. They also report on the experimental evaluation they performed on POMC on a nontrivial benchmark. 


International Conferences:

C1. Juncal Alonso, Christophe Joubert, Leire Orue-Echevarria, Matteo Pradella, Daniel Vladusic. Programming trustworthy Infrastructure As Code in a Secure Framework. First SWForum workshop on trustworthy software and open source (, ISSN 1613-0073 Vol 2878. 2021, pp. 16-23. Relates to WP2.

Zenodo link:

Available online:

This paper presents PIACERE as a whole at conceptual level. The presentation in the workshop has been used to gather feedback on the PIACERE solution and approach.

C2. Galia Nedeltcheva, Alfonso De La Fuente Ruiz, Leire Orue-Echevarria Arrieta, Nejc Bat, Lorenzo Blasi. Towards Supporting the Generation of Infrastructure as Code Through Modelling Approaches – Systematic Literature Review. 2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C). First International Workshop on the Foundations of Infrastructure Specification and Testing (FIST 2022). IEEE, Hawaii. 12-14 March 2022. eCF Paper Id: 1643378438288, Relates to WP3.

Available online:

The paper presents a structured literature review (SLR) for what concerns the aspects: Infrastructure as a Code (IaC) languages, modelling approaches supporting the generation of IaC, categories of languages, and their characteristics, and security analysis techniques. An extensive study has been performed on the generation of the Infrastructure as Code modelling approaches that are relevant to PIACERE DOML (DevSecOps modelling language) specifically, in order to study which DOML requirements could be satisfied by each approach.

C3. Michele Chiari, Michele De Pascalis, Matteo Pradella. Static Analysis of Infrastructure as Code: a Survey. 2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C). First International Workshop on the Foundations of Infrastructure Specification and Testing (FIST 2022). IEEE, Hawaii. 12-14 March 2022. Relates to WP4.

ArXive link:

Available online:

This is a literature review on static analysis approaches for IaC, which covers methods based on code smell detection, data mining, and model checking. Its purpose within the project was to analyse the state of the art on static verification tools upon which to build the DOML Model Checker (WP4).

C4. Michele Chiari, Elisabetta Di Nitto, Adrián Noguero Mucientes, Bin Xiang. Developing a New DevOps Modelling Language to Support the Creation of Infrastructure as Code. European Conference on Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing (ESOCC 2022). 22-24 March 2022. Relates to WP3.

Zenodo link:

Repository link:

This is a short paper giving an overview of the motivations for building the DOML, the principles behind it, and its current structure. In this paper we have not introduced new developments, but its purpose is pure dissemination, to receive feedback on the DOML ideas from an expert external audience.

C5. Osaba, E., Diaz-de-Arcaya, J., Orue-Echavarria, L., Alonso, J., López Lobo, J., Benguría G., & Etxaniz, I. (2022PIACERE Project: Description and Prototype for Optimizing Infrastructure as Code Deployment Configurations. The Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conferenc (GECCO 2022). 9-13 July 2022. Relates to WP5.

Available online:

The goal of this technical paper is to describe the preliminary approach followed in PIACERE for carrying out this optimization, and how the IOP fits into the whole PIACERE ecosystem. Additionally, results obtained in a preliminary experimentation are detailed in this study.

C6. N. Petrović, M. Cankar and A. Luzar, “Automated Approach to IaC Code Inspection Using Python-Based DevSecOps Tool,” 2022 30th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), 2022, pp. 1-4. Publisher IEEExplore, doi: 10.1109/TELFOR56187.2022.9983681. Relates to WP5, KR6.

Available online:

In this paper, we present an open-source Python-based tool with web-based graphical interface which enables automation of static code analysis and checks when it comes to Infrastructure as Code (IaC) scripts. The proposed tool is evaluated in several scenarios when it comes to terraform scripts.

C7. Eneko Osaba, Josu Diaz-de-Arcaya, Juncal Alonso, Jesus L. Lobo, Gorka Benguria, Iñaki Etxaniz. An Evolutionary Computation based Platform for Optimizing Infrastructure-As-Code Deployment Configurations. Eighth International Congress on Information and Communication Technology (ICICT 2023), 20-23 February 2023, London, UK. Relates to WP5, KR9. 

The main motivation of this technical paper is to describe and demonstrate the applicability of the IOP, which is based on EC metaheuristics for dealing with the task of providing the user with optimized Infrastructure-as-Code configurations deployed on the most appropriate infrastructural elements that best meet the predefined requirements. In the paper, we also describe the main optimization problem to solve, deepening its particularities and demonstrating its adaptability to user needs. 

C8. Michele Chiari, Bin Xiang, Galia Nedeltcheva, Elisabetta Di Nitto, Lorenzo Blasi, Debora Benedetto, Laurentiu Niculut. DOML – A New Modelling Approach To Infrastructure-as-Code. 35th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 2023). 12-16 June 2023, Zaragoza, Spain. Relates to WP3 (KR1, KR3, KR4).  

Available: DOML: A New Modelling Approach to Infrastructure-as-Code | SpringerLink 

In this paper, we introduce the DevOps Modelling Language (DOML), a new Cloud modeling language for infrastructure deployments. We present the DOML’s principles and discuss the related work on IaC languages. We demonstrate the DOML advantages for the end-user in comparison with state-of-the-art IaC languages such as Ansible, Terraform, and Cloudify, and show its effectiveness through an example. 

C9. Alfonso de la Fuente Ruiz, Galia Novakova Nedeltcheva. Game theory strategies for Open-Source Infrastructure-as-Code. IEEE 20th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C 2023). Second International Workshop on the Foundations of Infrastructure Specification and Testing (FIST 2023). IEEE, L’Aquila, Italy, 14 March 2023. DOI: 10.1109/ICSA-C57050.2023.00075 Relates to WP3, KR1. 

In this paper, we study the adoption of OSS philosophy by industrial partners from the perspective of game theory, to then draw conclusions on what information to share, when, why, how, and with whom, so that risks are minimized, and benefits are maximized for each, and every partner engaged in IaC-focused collaborative projects that make use of an OSS approach.  

C10. Josu Diaz-de-Arcaya, Eneko Osaba, Gorka Benguria, Iñaki Etxaniz, Jesus L. Lobo, Juncal Alonso, Ana I. Torre-Bastida, Aitor Almeida. IEM: A Unified Lifecycle Orchestrator for Multilingual IaC DeploymentsFASTContinuum  2023 workshop co-located at ICPE 2023, International Conference on Performance Engineering (ICPE 2023), 16 April 2023, Coimbra, Portugal. DOI:  Relates to WP5, KR10. 

This paper presents the IaC Execution Manager (IEM), a unified framework for the lifecycle management of software components alongside their IaC. Moreover, its benefits in an industrial use case are discussed. 

C11. Nedeltcheva, Galia Novakova, Bin Xiang, Laurentiu Niculut, and Debora Benedetto. “Challenges Towards Modeling and Generating Infrastructure-as-Code.” In Companion of the 2023 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering, pp. 189-193. 2023. FASTContinuum 2023 workshop, co-located with the International Conference on Performance Engineering (ICPE 2023), 16 April 2023, Coimbra, Portugal. DOI:, Published Online: 2023-04-15, Relates to WP3, KR1 & KR3 

This paper aims at describing our experience in applying IaC in cloud-native applications particularly, discussing the key challenges towards modeling and generating IaC faced in the ongoing project PIACERE (Programming Trustworthy Infrastructure-As-Code in a Secure Framework). The concluding insights could be helpful for the wider adoption of IaC by software developers.   

C12. M. Cankar, N. Petrovic, J. Pita Costa, A. Cernivec, J. Antic, T. Martincic, D. Stepec. Security in DevSecOps: Applying tools and machine learning to verifications and monitoring steps. FASTContinuum 2023 workshop, co-located with the International Conference on Performance Engineering (ICPE 2023), 16 April 2023, Coimbra, Portugal. DOI:  Relates to WP6, KR6, KR7+KR8, KR14

This paper proposes a) IaC Scan Runner, an open-source solution developed in Python for inspecting a variety of state-of-the-art IaC languages in application design time and b) the run time anomaly detection tool called LOMOS. Both tools work in synergy and provide a valuable contribution to a DevSecOps tool set.   

C13. Jesus L. Lobo, Ibai Laña, Eneko Osaba, Javier Del Ser. On the Connection between Concept Drift and Uncertainty in Industrial Artificial Intelligence. IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IEEE CAI 2023). Santa Clara, California, USA, 5-6 June 2023. Relates to WP6 (T6.2), KR11.  

Available online:  website:  

This paper presents the relationship between the Concept Drift phenomenon and the uncertainty in streaming regression tasks.  

C14. Jan Antić, Joao Pita Costa et al (2023). Runtime security monitoring by an interplay between rule matching and deep learning-based anomaly detection on logs. 4th International Workshop on Information and Operational Technology Security (IOSEC 2023), IEEE. 19 April 2023, Barcelona, Spain.   Relates to WP4, KR7+KR8, KR12.   

This paper discusses the combination of a static rule-matching approach with dynamic self-supervised machine learning to detect anomalies in logs.  One key research question in this field is whether identified anomalies can be transformed into Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) rules (e.g., Wazuh), and how the LOMOS tool can contribute to this process.    

C15. Eneko Osaba, Josu Diaz-de-Arcaya, Juncal Alonso, Jesus L. Lobo, Gorka Benguria and Iñaki Echaniz. Multiobjective Optimization Analysis for Finding Infrastructure-as-Code Deployment Configurations. 1st International Conference on Computer and Communications Management (ICCCM 2023) 4-6 August 2023, Nagoya, Japan. Relates to WP5, KR9. 

This paper is focused on a multiobjective problem related to optimizing Infrastructure-as-Code deployment configurations. A deep analysis is conducted, focusing on the resolution of the problem, in order to determine which is the most appropriate multiobjective method for embedding in the IOP. Nine different evolutionary computation-based multiobjective algorithms are reported in this paper. Findings reached from the tests carried out led to the creation of a multi-algorithm system, capable of applying different techniques according to the user’s needs.